In his seminal work on Moche iconography, Donnan (1979) argued that while Moche art is found painted on thousands of ceramics it actually consists of a few "basic themes". Personajes míticos, escenas y narraciones en la iconografía Mochica. There is little contextual information indicative of its original location apart from the fact that it was found at the Kalasasaya complex (Posnansky 1945: 216-219; see also Schaedel 1952: 253, 'Tiahuanaco 20'). Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino 12 (1): 85-98. At the Crossroads of Earth and Sky: An Andean Cosmology. g., cardinal directions, celestial cycles, visual pathways, and so on (Janusek 2004a: 153). The Thematic Approach to Moche Iconography. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 14). Die Ruinenstaette von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des Alten Peru. Figura 7. El propósito de este manual es que los países asuman la Quilter (1990, 1997) and others1, extended Donnan's thematic model arguing for a narrative configuration of Moche iconography. Bloque de basalto (46,5 x 16,3 cm) excavado en el templo semisubterráneo, con “dioses de báculos” (Museo Lítico de Tiwanaku. The convention appears to have organized scenes using an empirical approach that followed rules of proportional representation (Panofsky 1970). Both their studies focused on woven imagery. In Chavín. Tiwanaku Temples and State Expansion: A Tiwanaku sunken-temple in Moquegua, Peru. [ Links ], Protzen, J.-P. & S. Nair, 2001. Thus Staff Gods do not all necessarily fit well with the underlying Viracocha, or "God" interpretation. LA CONFIGURACIÓN ESPACIAL GEOGRÁFICA, CONTEXTO ESENCIAL DE ESTUDIO DEL TRANSPORTE Y LA ACCIDENTALIDAD Flor Ángela Cerquera Escobar Ingeniera de Transporte y Vías, Especialista Infraestructura Vial, Magister Ingeniería de Tránsito y Transporte. Lima: Fondo Editorial PUCP. While the narrative and scenic character of Moche iconography has been amply shown and discussed through the years, the possibility of equivalent scenes and narratives in Tiwanaku imagery is normally excluded from current scholarship. Señores del Lago Sagrado. The motifs carved on the Gateway of the Sun have been interpreted as forming a celestial calendar divided in twelve months (Posnansky 1945; Makowski 2001a; Benitez 2006, 2009; Isbell 2008). Inca Yupanqui adopted this idol for is guauqui [Huauqui, brother], because he said that is had appeared and spoken in a desert place and had given him a serpent with two heads, to carry about with him always, saying that while he had it with him, nothing sinister could happen in his affairs (Sarmiento de Gamboa 1999 [1615]: 101). [ Links ], Kubler, G., 1984. This video is unavailable. 6). Art and Moche Martial Arts. In contrast, and perhaps in more contemporary terms in relation to the study of world art, a painted or sculpted pictorial scene forms a "genre of action" (Lau 2011: 213-215). For instance, when the Bennett Monolith was discovered in 1934 at the Semi-Subterranean Temple, located east of Kalasasaya, rollout drawings were made. Los Angeles, CA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press. 3 The monolith was probably moved from its original location, either the Akapana or Puma Punku (Ponce-Sanginés 1981 ; Conklin 1991: 285, 2009: 115; Protzen & Nair 2000, 2001, 2002, 2013; see also Bennett 1963: 112). Excavaciones en Tiahuanaco. These observations suggested an overall conventionalized pictorial pattern, one forming "a logical system which allowed the weaver considerable flexibility in their combination and emphasis, enabling him to achieve a rich variety of effects while maintaining the distinctive appearance and symbolic meaning required of garments worn by the Tiwanaku official clan" (Sawyer 1963: 38). Figura 11. 6). Fragmentos de una túnica Wari con representación de flautistas en el Museo Etnográfico de Buenos Aires. 5). [ Links ], Janusek, J., 2004a. In El mundo sobrenatural Mochica. II: 186; Bellamy & Allan 1959). A Review of Stone Carved Imagery and Staff Gods, Configuración Espacial en el Arte Tiwanaku. He held a war club in one hand and a sling in the other, and wore shining garments. arquitectura etc. Arguments supporting a scenic interpretation have been advanced in recent years. Los Angeles, CA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Chicago. Pese a que los países han desarrollado estos procesos con anterioridad, pocos entre ellos Ñawpa Pacha 2: 1-10. The central figure of the Gateway is often cited as one of prime occurrences of the Staff God visual theme and the principal deity of Tiwanaku (Posnansky 1945; Chávez 2004: 73; Isbell 2008: 734; Isbell & Knobloch 2009). Palo Alto: Peek Publications. Inca Sacred Space: Landscape, Site and Symbol in the Andes. [ Links ], Donnan, C., 1979. Before discussing the specific details of the Gateway personages, it is useful to briefly review here the intellectual basis of the interpretation of Andean Staff Gods and the role of the Gateway in the understanding of the Andean staffed personages. Eine Kulturgeschichtliche Studie Aufgrund Selbständiger Aufnahmen. Latin American Antiquity 1 (1): 42-65. More recently, Zuidema (2009) has suggested a revised version of the Bennett calendar focusing on the month of December. [ Links ], Benitez, L., 2006. In effect, the lateral distortion would have been applied to create the illusion of false perspective in order to overcome what he called the "flat sandwich board effect" of the attire. In recent years, Isbell and Knobloch (Isbell 2008, 2013; Isbell & Knobloch 2006, 2009) proposed a vision of the Middle Horizon that further bridges the concept of horizon (Uhle 2003 [1903]; Kroeber 1944; Rowe 1962; Rice 1993) and that of an underlying corporate imagery that spread in the Andean high plateau during roughly ca. Textiles have been central to the understanding of the Andean past, used both as objects for social regulation and as a means to distributing vital information concerning people's worldviews (Murra 2004). In Handbook of South American Archaeology, H. Silverman & W. H. Isbell, Ed., pp. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. [ Links ], Oakland, A., 1986. Both the Bennett and Ponce Monoliths include attendant personages facing away from the central personage. Pre-Columbian Symbolic Communication. capacidades en los países de América Central y el Caribe y América Latina en general, el CATIE se complace Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. He argued that many of the Gateway personage's attributes can be verified by further studying the texts written by Molina and Cobo, as well as parts of Sarmiento de Gamboa's accounts. 4 Measurements for the Staff God (without the pedestal) are 0.62 x 0.55 m and for each attendant personage (an average of) 0.145 x 0.14 m (Schaedel 1952: 257-258, Tiahuanaco R-5). [ Links ], Makowski, K., 2005. However, the content that it may display on stone, may actually reiterate a known Andean pattern of representing important (human) individuals and their attendants, in this case ritual specialists attended by ritual participants. Moche Sacrifice Ceremony (adapted from Donnan 1979: 409, fig. Figure 8.a) Back side of the Ponce Monolith (photo: María Ruiz-Castell). Figure 11. Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino 9: 55-73. They mark a distinctive visual tradition that developed at and around the Tiwanaku archaeological site, at an altitude of ~3850 MASL on the southeastern shores of Lake Titicaca (fig. Instead of approaching the imagery in terms of iconographic heraldry and testimonies of past calendar and cosmological ideals, this essay approached central personages—the "Staff Gods"—as parts of organized scenes where anthropo-morphs relate to each other. 101-114. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. The rationale would thus in part justify heraldry in the composition, a reasonable argument made elsewhere (see, e. g., Makowski 2001a: 346, 2001b: 78-79, 2009: 148-149). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. [ Links ], Hocquenghem, A.-M., 1987. [ Links ], Bankes, G., 1977. Anthropomorphism, for the iconographer, is an interpretative tool. [ Links ], Rowe, J., 1946. Photo: M. Viau-Courville). Los Angeles, CA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press. [ Links ], Schaedel, R., 1952. [ Links ], Berenguer, J., 2000.
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