ET) today on "Virtually Speaking," a show that's available via Second Life, BlogTalkRadio and iTunes. The killer whale brain is also approximately 3.5 and 6.5 times more massive than that of the bottlenose dolphin and common dolphin brains, respectively. The inverse relationship between corpus callosum size and the size of the hemispheres is likely due to trade‐offs between conduction velocities and brain metabolism (Shultz et al., personal communication). "But I can tell you that killer whales, because they're supposed to be so intelligent, don't do things accidentally. 3). This finding is consistent with observations in other odontocetes (Morgane et al., 1980; Oelschlager and Oelschlager, 2002; Marino et al., 2003b) and is interesting in light of the fact that killer whales exhibit highly sophisticated ranging and distribution patterns that depend heavily on spatial memory skills (Baird, 2000). ", Marino worried that Brancheau's death may lead SeaWorld to give Tilikum what would amount to a lifelong sentence in solitary confinement. Elefante marino vs. Orcas en Argentina. Julie Fletcher / Orlando Sentinel file via AP. A comparison of encephalization levels between adult anthropoid primates and odontocetes (toothed whales), Relative volume of the cerebellum in the bottlenose dolphin and comparison with anthropoid primates, Anatomy and three‐dimensional reconstructions of the bottlenose dolphin (, Anatomy and three‐dimensional reconstructions of the brain of the white whale (, Magnetic resonance images of the brain of a dwarf sperm whale (, The central nervous system of the mysticete and odontocete whales, Relative brain sizes and cortical surface areas in odontocetes, Physiological observations on dolphin brains, Dolphin cognition and behavior: a comparative approach, The central nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin, Localization of sensory zones in the dolphin's cerebral cortex, Electrophysiological studies of the dolphin's brain, Corpus callosum size in delphinid cetaceans, Cultural transmission within maternal lineages: vocal clans in resident killer whales in southern Alaska. Finally, extreme development in the insular cortex and surrounding temporal operculum in the killer whale is intriguing. This was not an insane, uncontrollable act. Some might wonder why Tilikum was still at SeaWorld after those earlier deaths. This observation is consistent with findings that corpus callosum midsagittal area in delphinids is considerably smaller in relation to brain mass than in other mammals and that dolphins with larger brains possessed relatively smaller corpora callosa (Tarpley and Ridgway, 1994). That would be particularly stressful for a species so tied to family life that each pod has its own dialect of calls. There are, however, no published descriptions of the basic neuroanatomy of the killer whale. The Anatomical Record and Whales: We're Peas in the Same Pod. 2 and 16), and internal capsule (Figs. Killer whales, or orcas, have the second-biggest brains among all ocean mammals, weighing as much as 15 pounds. In humans, the frontal operculum is involved in speech. "The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology". This observation is consistent with findings in other odontocetes (Marino et al., 2001a, 2001b, 2002, 2003a, 2003b). Lori Marino, Naomi A. 5, 13, and 14). TIBURONES BLANCOS.- National Geographic.- Volumetric Neuroimaging of the Atlantic White‐Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) Brain from in situ Magnetic Resonance Images, Morphology and Evolutionary Biology of the Dolphin (. the "Free Willy" whale). The killer whale shares with other odontocetes a three‐tiered arrangement of limbic, paralimbic, and supralimbic arcuate cortical lobules divided by deep limbic and paralimbic clefts (Figs. Tilikum was a special case for several reasons: He's the largest orca in captivity, weighing in at more than 6 tons. 2–7, 16, and 17). 13:14. Figures 1–10 display a rostral‐to‐caudal sequence of anatomically labeled originally acquired 2 mm thick coronal scans at 12 mm intervals. And now, a new comprehensively researched essay by Dr. Lori Marino and a host of stellar co-authors called "The Harmful Effects of Captivity and Chronic Stress on the Well-being of Orcas … This is primarily due to the fact that bottlenose dolphins are popular in captivity and have been the focus of many long‐term field studies. (A similar debate over personhood has been percolating over the status of chimps.). Section 10. 4, 5, and 16), temporal operculum (Figs. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The killer whale‐foraging specializations and group hunting, Cetacean societies: field studies of dolphins and whales, Mirror image processing in three marine mammal species: killer whales (, Golgi and Nissl studies of the visual cortex of the bottlenose dolphin, A quantitative study of neuronal and glial numerical density in the visual cortex of the bottlenose dolphin: evidence for a specialized subarea and changes with age, Implications of the “initial brain” concept for brain evolution in Cetacea, Ultrastucture of synapse and golgi analysis of neurons in neocortex of the lateral gyrus (visual cortex) of the dolphin and pilot whale, Immunohistochemistry of neurotransmitters in visual cortex of several toothed whales: light and electron microscopic study, Sensory abilities of cetaceans: laboratory and field evidence, Morphological and histological features of odontocete visual neocortex: immunocytochemical analysis of pyramidal and nonpyramidal populations of neurons, Calretinin‐immunoreactive neurons in the primary visual cortex of dolphin and human brains, Calcium‐binding protein‐containing neuronal populations in mammalian visual cortex: a comparative study in whales, insectivores, bats, rodents, and primates, Comparative immunocytochemistry of calcium‐binding protein‐positive neurons in visual and auditory systems of cetacean and primate brains, Cytoarchitectonics and immunocytochemistry of the inferior colliculus of midbrains in cetaceans, Comparative analysis of calcium‐binding protein‐immunoreactive neuronal populations in the auditory and visual systems of the bottlenose dolphin (, Brain sizes, surfaces and neuronal sizes of the cortex cerebri: a stereological investigation of man and his variability and a comparison with some mammals (primates, whales, marsupialia, insectivores and one elephant), The primary auditory cortex in cetacean and human brain: a comparative analysis of neurofilament protein‐containing pyramidal neurons, Distribution of dopaminergic fibers and neurons in visual and auditory cortices of the harbor porpoise and pilot whale, Cellular distribution of the calcium‐binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin in the neocortex of mammals: phylogenetic and developmental patterns, Neurochemical and cellular specializations in the mammalian neocortex reflect phylogenetic relationships: evidence from primates, cetaceans, and artiodactyls, The anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (, Lateralized cerebral peduncles, extensive midbrain pallidum, and other distinctive features of the midbrain of whales and dolphins, Multiple sensory projections in the dolphin cerebral cortex.
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